HIV infection changes the lymph node (LN) tissue architecture, potentially impairing the immunologic response to antigenic challenge. The tissue-resident immune cell dynamics in virologically suppressed HIV+ patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) are not clear. We obtained LN biopsies before and 10 to 14 days after trivalent seasonal influenza immunization from healthy controls (HCs) and HIV+ volunteers on cART to investigate CD4+ T follicular helper (Tfh) and B cell dynamics by flow cytometry and quantitative imaging analysis. Prior to vaccination, compared with those in HCs, HIV+ LNs exhibited an altered follicular architecture, but harbored higher numbers of Tfh cells and increased IgG+ follicular memory B cells. Moreover, Tfh cell numbers were dependent upon preservation of the follicular dendritic cell (FDC) network and were predictive of the magnitude of the vaccine-induced IgG responses. Interestingly, postvaccination LN samples in HIV+ participants had significantly (P = 0.0179) reduced Tfh cell numbers compared with prevaccination samples, without evidence for peripheral Tfh (pTfh) cell reduction. We conclude that influenza vaccination alters the cellularity of draining LNs of HIV+ persons in conjunction with development of antigen-specific humoral responses. The underlying mechanism of Tfh cell decline warrants further investigation, as it could bear implications for the rational design of HIV vaccines.
Eirini Moysi, Suresh Pallikkuth, Leslie R. De Armas, Louis E. Gonzalez, David Ambrozak, Varghese George, David Huddleston, Rajendra Pahwa, Richard A. Koup, Constantinos Petrovas, Savita Pahwa
EZH2-mediated epigenetic regulation of T cell differentiation and regulatory T cell function has been described previously; however, the role of EZH2 in T cell–mediated anti-tumor immunity, especially in the context of immune checkpoint therapy, is not understood. Here, we showed that genetic depletion of EZH2 in regulatory T cells (FoxP3creEZH2fl/fl mice) leads to robust anti-tumor immunity. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of EZH2 in human T cells using CPI-1205 elicited phenotypic and functional alterations of the regulatory T cells and enhanced cytotoxic activity of effector T cells. We observed that ipilimumab (anti–CTLA-4) increased EZH2 expression in peripheral T cells from treated patients. We hypothesized that inhibition of EZH2 expression in T cells would increase the effectiveness of anti–CTLA-4 therapy, which we tested in murine models. Collectively, our data demonstrated that modulating EZH2 expression in T cells can improve anti-tumor responses elicited by anti–CTLA-4 therapy, which provides a strong rationale for a combination trial of CPI-1205 plus ipilimumab.
Sangeeta Goswami, Irina Apostolou, Jan Zhang, Jill Skepner, Swetha Anandhan, Xuejun Zhang, Liangwen Xiong, Patrick Trojer, Ana Aparicio, Sumit K. Subudhi, James P. Allison, Hao Zhao, Padmanee Sharma
Very few B cells in germinal centers (GCs) and extrafollicular (EF) regions of lymph nodes express CD30. Their specific features and relationship to CD30-expressing Hodgkin and Reed/Sternberg (HRS) cells of Hodgkin lymphoma are unclear but highly relevant, because numerous patients with lymphoma are currently treated with an anti-CD30 immunotoxin. We performed a comprehensive analysis of human CD30+ B cells. Phenotypic and IgV gene analyses indicated that CD30+ GC B lymphocytes represent typical GC B cells, and that CD30+ EF B cells are mostly post-GC B cells. The transcriptomes of CD30+ GC and EF B cells largely overlapped, sharing a strong MYC signature, but were strikingly different from conventional GC B cells and memory B and plasma cells, respectively. CD30+ GC B cells represent MYC+ centrocytes redifferentiating into centroblasts; CD30+ EF B cells represent active, proliferating memory B cells. HRS cells shared typical transcriptome patterns with CD30+ B cells, suggesting that they originate from these lymphocytes or acquire their characteristic features during lymphomagenesis. By comparing HRS to normal CD30+ B cells we redefined aberrant and disease-specific features of HRS cells. A remarkable downregulation of genes regulating genomic stability and cytokinesis in HRS cells may explain their genomic instability and multinuclearity.
Marc A. Weniger, Enrico Tiacci, Stefanie Schneider, Judith Arnolds, Sabrina Rüschenbaum, Janine Duppach, Marc Seifert, Claudia Döring, Martin-Leo Hansmann, Ralf Küppers
Ikaros/IKZF1 is an essential transcription factor expressed throughout hematopoiesis. IKZF1 is implicated in lymphocyte and myeloid differentiation and negative regulation of cell proliferation. In humans, somatic mutations in IKZF1 have been linked to the development of B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children and adults. Recently, heterozygous germline IKZF1 mutations have been identified in patients with a B cell immune deficiency mimicking common variable immunodeficiency. These mutations demonstrated incomplete penetrance and led to haploinsufficiency. Herein, we report 7 unrelated patients with a novel early-onset combined immunodeficiency associated with de novo germline IKZF1 heterozygous mutations affecting amino acid N159 located in the DNA-binding domain of IKZF1. Different bacterial and viral infections were diagnosed, but Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia was reported in all patients. One patient developed a T cell ALL. This immunodeficiency was characterized by innate and adaptive immune defects, including low numbers of B cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, and myeloid dendritic cells, as well as T cell and monocyte dysfunctions. Notably, most T cells exhibited a naive phenotype and were unable to evolve into effector memory cells. Functional studies indicated these mutations act as dominant negative. This defect expands the clinical spectrum of human IKZF1-associated diseases from somatic to germline, from haploinsufficient to dominant negative.
David Boutboul, Hye Sun Kuehn, Zoé Van de Wyngaert, Julie E. Niemela, Isabelle Callebaut, Jennifer Stoddard, Christelle Lenoir, Vincent Barlogis, Catherine Farnarier, Frédéric Vely, Nao Yoshida, Seiji Kojima, Hirokazu Kanegane, Akihiro Hoshino, Fabian Hauck, Ludovic Lhermitte, Vahid Asnafi, Philip Roehrs, Shaoying Chen, James W. Verbsky, Katherine R. Calvo, Ammar Husami, Kejian Zhang, Joseph Roberts, David Amrol, John Sleaseman, Amy P. Hsu, Steven M. Holland, Rebecca Marsh, Alain Fischer, Thomas A. Fleisher, Capucine Picard, Sylvain Latour, Sergio D. Rosenzweig
In type 1 diabetes, cytotoxic CD8 T cells with specificity for β-cell autoantigens are found in the pancreatic islets where they are implicated in the destruction of insulin-secreting β cells. In contrast, the disease relevance of β-cell-reactive CD8 T cells that are detectable in the circulation, and their relationship to β-cell function, are not known. Here, we tracked multiple, circulating β-cell-reactive CD8 T cell subsets and measured β-cell function longitudinally for two years, starting immediately after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. We found that change in β-cell-specific effector memory CD8 T cells expressing CD57 was positively correlated with C-peptide change in subjects below 12 years of age. Autoreactive CD57+ effector memory CD8 T cells bore the signature of enhanced effector function (higher expression of granzyme B, killer specific protein 37 and CD16, and reduced expression of CD28) compared with their CD57-negative counterparts, and network association modelling indicated that the dynamics of β-cell-reactive CD57+ effector memory CD8 T cell subsets were strongly linked. Thus, coordinated changes in circulating β-cell-specific CD8 T cells within the CD57+ effector memory subset calibrate to functional insulin reserve in type 1 diabetes, providing a tool for immune monitoring and a mechanism-based target for immunotherapy.
Lorraine Yeo, Alyssa Woodwyk, Sanjana Sood, Anna Lorenc, Martin Eichmann, Irma Pujol-Autonell, Rossella Melchiotti, Ania Skowera, Efthymios Fidanis, Garry M. Dolton, Katie Tungatt, Andrew K. Sewell, Susanne Heck, Alka Saxena, Craig A. Beam, Mark Peakman
PIM kinase family members play a crucial role in promoting cell survival and proliferation via phosphorylation of their target substrates. In this study, we investigated the role of the PIM kinases with respect to T cell responses in transplantation and tumor immunity. We found that the PIM-2 isoform negatively regulated T cell responses to alloantigen, in contrast to the PIM-1 and PIM-3 isoforms, which acted as positive regulators. T cells deficient in PIM-2 demonstrated increased T cell differentiation toward Th1 subset, proliferation, and migration to target organs after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, resulting in dramatically accelerated graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) severity. Restoration of PIM-2 expression markedly attenuated the pathogenicity of PIM-2–deficient T cells to induce GVHD. On the other hand, mice deficient in PIM-2 readily rejected syngeneic tumor, which was primarily dependent on CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, silencing PIM-2 in polyclonal or antigen-specific CD8+ T cells substantially enhanced their antitumor response in adoptive T cell immunotherapy. We conclude that PIM-2 kinase plays a prominent role in suppressing T cell responses, and provide a strong rationale to target PIM-2 for cancer immunotherapy.
Anusara Daenthanasanmak, Yongxia Wu, Supinya Iamsawat, Hung D. Nguyen, David Bastian, MengMeng Zhang, M. Hanief Sofi, Shilpak Chatterjee, Elizabeth G. Hill, Shikhar Mehrotra, Andrew S. Kraft, Xue-Zhong Yu
Vaccine responses vary by geographic location. We have previously described how HIV-associated inflammation leads to fibrosis of secondary lymph nodes (LNs) and T cell depletion. We hypothesized that other infections may cause LN inflammation and fibrosis, in a process similar to that seen in HIV infection, which may lead to T cell depletion and affect vaccine responses. We studied LNs of individuals from Kampala, Uganda, before and after yellow fever vaccination (YFV) and found fibrosis in LNs that was similar to that seen in HIV infection. We found blunted antibody responses to YFV that correlated to the amount of LN fibrosis and loss of T cells, including T follicular helper cells. These data suggest that LN fibrosis is not limited to HIV infection and may be associated with impaired immunologic responses to vaccines. This may have an impact on vaccine development, especially for infectious diseases prevalent in the developing world.
Cissy Kityo, Krystelle Nganou Makamdop, Meghan Rothenberger, Jeffrey G. Chipman, Torfi Hoskuldsson, Gregory J. Beilman, Bartosz Grzywacz, Peter Mugyenyi, Francis Ssali, Rama S. Akondy, Jodi Anderson, Thomas E. Schmidt, Thomas Reimann, Samuel P. Callisto, Jordan Schoephoerster, Jared Schuster, Proscovia Muloma, Patrick Ssengendo, Eirini Moysi, Constantinos Petrovas, Ray Lanciotti, Lin Zhang, Maria T. Arévalo, Benigno Rodriguez, Ted M. Ross, Lydie Trautmann, Rafick-Pierre Sekaly, Michael M. Lederman, Richard A. Koup, Rafi Ahmed, Cavan Reilly, Daniel C. Douek, Timothy W. Schacker
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a major obstacle to drug development, and some of these, including hypersensitivity reactions to the HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitor abacavir (ABC), are associated with HLA alleles, particularly HLA-B*57:01. However, not all HLA-B*57:01+ patients develop ADRs, suggesting that in addition to the HLA genetic risk, other factors may influence the outcome of the response to the drug. To study HLA-linked ADRs in vivo, we generated HLA-B*57:01–Tg mice and show that, although ABC activated Tg mouse CD8+ T cells in vitro in a HLA-B*57:01–dependent manner, the drug was tolerated in vivo. In immunocompetent Tg animals, ABC induced CD8+ T cells with an anergy-like phenotype that did not lead to ADRs. In contrast, in vivo depletion of CD4+ T cells prior to ABC administration enhanced DC maturation to induce systemic ABC-reactive CD8+ T cells with an effector-like and skin-homing phenotype along with CD8+ infiltration and inflammation in drug-sensitized skin. B7 costimulatory molecule blockade prevented CD8+ T cell activation. These Tg mice provide a model for ABC tolerance and for the generation of HLA-B*57:01–restricted, ABC-reactive CD8+ T cells dependent on both HLA genetic risk and immunoregulatory host factors.
Marco Cardone, Karla Garcia, Mulualem E. Tilahun, Lisa F. Boyd, Sintayehu Gebreyohannes, Masahide Yano, Gregory Roderiquez, Adovi D. Akue, Leslie Juengst, Elliot Mattson, Suryatheja Ananthula, Kannan Natarajan, Montserrat Puig, David H. Margulies, Michael A. Norcross
Cancer progression is associated with alterations of intra- and extramedullary hematopoiesis to support a systemic tumor-promoting myeloid response. However, the functional specialty, mechanism, and clinical relevance of extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) remain unclear. Here we showed that the heightened splenic myelopoiesis in tumor-bearing hosts was not only characterized by the accumulation of myeloid precursors, but also associated with profound functional alterations of splenic early hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). With the distinct capability to produce and respond to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), these splenic HSPCs were “primed” and committed to generating immunosuppressive myeloid cells. Mechanistically, the CCL2-CCR2 axis-dependent recruitment and the subsequent local education by the splenic stroma were critical for eliciting this splenic HSPC response. Selective abrogation of this splenic EMH was sufficient to synergistically enhance the therapeutic efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade. Clinically, patients with different types of solid tumors exhibited increased splenic HSPC levels associated with poor survival. These findings reveal a unique and important role of splenic hematopoiesis in the tumor-associated myelopoiesis.
Chong Wu, Huiheng Ning, Mingyu Liu, Jie Lin, Shufeng Luo, Wenjie Zhu, Jing Xu, Wen-Chao Wu, Jing Liang, Chun-Kui Shao, Jiaqi Ren, Bin Wei, Jun Cui, Min-Shan Chen, Limin Zheng
Eya proteins are critical developmental regulators that are highly expressed in embryogenesis but downregulated after development. Amplification and/or re-expression of Eyas occurs in many tumor types. In breast cancer, Eyas regulate tumor progression by acting as transcriptional cofactors and tyrosine phosphatases. Intriguingly, Eyas harbor a separate threonine (Thr) phosphatase activity, which was previously implicated in innate immunity. Here we describe what we believe to be a novel role for Eya3 in mediating triple-negative breast cancer–associated immune suppression. Eya3 loss decreases tumor growth in immune-competent mice and is associated with increased numbers of infiltrated CD8+ T cells, which, when depleted, reverse the effects of Eya3 knockdown. Mechanistically, Eya3 utilizes its Thr phosphatase activity to dephosphorylate Myc at pT58, resulting in a stabilized form. We show that Myc is required for Eya3-mediated increases in PD-L1, and that rescue of PD-L1 in Eya3-knockdown cells restores tumor progression. Finally, we demonstrate that Eya3 significantly correlates with PD-L1 in human breast tumors, and that tumors expressing high levels of Eya3 have a decreased CD8+ T cell signature. Our data uncover a role for Eya3 in mediating tumor-associated immune suppression, and suggest that its inhibition may enhance checkpoint therapies.
Rebecca L. Vartuli, Hengbo Zhou, Lingdi Zhang, Rani K. Powers, Jared Klarquist, Pratyaydipta Rudra, Melanie Y. Vincent, Debashis Ghosh, James C. Costello, Ross M. Kedl, Jill E. Slansky, Rui Zhao, Heide L. Ford