Increasing evidence suggests a role for excessive intake of fructose in the Western diet as a contributor to the current epidemics of metabolic syndrome and obesity. Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is a difficult and potentially lethal orphan disease associated with impaired fructose metabolism. In HFI, the deficiency of a particular aldolase, aldolase B, results in the accumulation of intracellular phosphorylated fructose thus leading to phosphate sequestration and depletion, increased ATP turnover and a plethora of conditions leading to clinical manifestations including fatty liver, hyperuricemia, Fanconi syndrome and severe hypoglycemia. Unfortunately, to date, there is no treatment for HFI and avoiding sugar and fructose in our society has become quite challenging. In this report, through use of genetically modified mice and pharmacological inhibitors, we demonstrate that the absence or inhibition of ketohexokinase (Khk), an enzyme upstream of aldolase B, is sufficient to prevent hypoglycemia and liver and intestinal injury associated with HFI using aldolase B knockout mice. We thus provide evidence for the first time of a potential therapeutic approach for this condition. Mechanistically, our studies suggest that it is the inhibition of the Khk C isoform, not the A isoform, that protects animals from HFI.
Miguel A. Lanaspa, Ana Andres-Hernando, David J. Orlicky, Christina Cicerchi, Cholsoon Jang, Nanxing Li, Tamara Milagres, Masanari Kuwabara, Michael F. Wempe, Joshua D. Rabinowitz, Richard J. Johnson, Dean R. Tolan
Obesity is a major risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In adipose tissue, obesity-mediated insulin resistance correlates with the accumulation of proinflammatory macrophages and inflammation. However, the causal relationship of these events is unclear. Here, we report that obesity-induced insulin resistance in mice precedes macrophage accumulation and inflammation in adipose tissue. Using a mouse model that combines genetically induced, adipose-specific insulin resistance (mTORC2-knockout) and diet-induced obesity, we found that insulin resistance causes local accumulation of proinflammatory macrophages. Mechanistically, insulin resistance in adipocytes results in production of the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1), which recruits monocytes and activates proinflammatory macrophages. Finally, insulin resistance (high homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) correlated with reduced insulin/mTORC2 signaling and elevated MCP1 production in visceral adipose tissue from obese human subjects. Our findings suggest that insulin resistance in adipose tissue leads to inflammation rather than vice versa.
Mitsugu Shimobayashi, Verena Albert, Bettina Woelnerhanssen, Irina C. Frei, Diana Weissenberger, Anne Christin Meyer-Gerspach, Nicolas Clement, Suzette Moes, Marco Colombi, Jerome A. Meier, Marta M. Swierczynska, Paul Jenö, Christoph Beglinger, Ralph Peterli, Michael N. Hall
We have previously reported that the fractalkine (FKN)/CX3CR1 system represents a novel regulatory mechanism for insulin secretion and β cell function. Here, we demonstrate that chronic administration of a long-acting form of FKN, FKN-Fc, can exert durable effects to improve glucose tolerance with increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and decreased β cell apoptosis in obese rodent models. Unexpectedly, chronic FKN-Fc administration also led to decreased α cell glucagon secretion. In islet cells, FKN inhibited ATP-sensitive potassium channel conductance by an ERK-dependent mechanism, which triggered β cell action potential (AP) firing and decreased α cell AP amplitude. This results in increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and decreased glucagon secretion. Beyond its islet effects, FKN-Fc also exerted peripheral effects to enhance hepatic insulin sensitivity due to inhibition of glucagon action. In hepatocytes, FKN treatment reduced glucagon-stimulated cAMP production and CREB phosphorylation in a pertussis toxin–sensitive manner. Together, these results raise the possibility of use of FKN-based therapy to improve type 2 diabetes by increasing both insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity.
Matthew Riopel, Jong Bae Seo, Gautam K. Bandyopadhyay, Pingping Li, Joshua Wollam, Heekyung Chung, Seung-Ryoung Jung, Anne Murphy, Maria Wilson, Ron de Jong, Sanjay Patel, Deepika Balakrishna, James Bilakovics, Andrea Fanjul, Artur Plonowski, Duk-Su Koh, Christopher J. Larson, Jerrold M. Olefsky, Yun Sok Lee
Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons function as key regulators of metabolism and physiology by releasing prohormone-derived neuropeptides with distinct biological activities. However, our understanding of early events in prohormone maturation in the ER remains incomplete. Highlighting the significance of this gap in knowledge, a single POMC cysteine-to-phenylalanine mutation at position 28 (POMC-C28F) is defective for ER processing and causes early onset obesity in a dominant-negative manner in humans through an unclear mechanism. Here, we report a pathologically important role of Sel1L-Hrd1, the protein complex of ER-associated degradation (ERAD), within POMC neurons. Mice with POMC neuron–specific Sel1L deficiency developed age-associated obesity due, at least in part, to the ER retention of POMC that led to hyperphagia. The Sel1L-Hrd1 complex targets a fraction of nascent POMC molecules for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation, preventing accumulation of misfolded and aggregated POMC, thereby ensuring that another fraction of POMC can undergo normal posttranslational processing and trafficking for secretion. Moreover, we found that the disease-associated POMC-C28F mutant evades ERAD and becomes aggregated due to the presence of a highly reactive unpaired cysteine thiol at position 50. Thus, this study not only identifies ERAD as an important mechanism regulating POMC maturation within the ER, but also provides insights into the pathogenesis of monogenic obesity associated with defective prohormone folding.
Geun Hyang Kim, Guojun Shi, Diane R.M. Somlo, Leena Haataja, Soobin Song, Qiaoming Long, Eduardo A. Nillni, Malcolm J. Low, Peter Arvan, Martin G. Myers Jr., Ling Qi
The compensatory proliferation of insulin-producing β cells is critical to maintaining glucose homeostasis at the early stage of type 2 diabetes. Failure of β cells to proliferate results in hyperglycemia and insulin dependence in patients. To understand the effect of the interplay between β cell compensation and lipid metabolism upon obesity and peripheral insulin resistance, we eliminated LDL receptor–related protein 1 (LRP1), a pleiotropic mediator of cholesterol, insulin, energy metabolism, and other cellular processes, in β cells. Upon high-fat diet exposure, LRP1 ablation significantly impaired insulin secretion and proliferation of β cells. The diminished insulin signaling was partly contributed to by the hypersensitivity to glucose-induced, Ca2+-dependent activation of Erk and the mTORC1 effector p85 S6K1. Surprisingly, in LRP1-deficient islets, lipotoxic sphingolipids were mitigated by improved lipid metabolism, mediated at least in part by the master transcriptional regulator PPARγ2. Acute overexpression of PPARγ2 in β cells impaired insulin signaling and insulin secretion. Elimination of Apbb2, a functional regulator of LRP1 cytoplasmic domain, also impaired β cell function in a similar fashion. In summary, our results uncover the double-edged effects of intracellular lipid metabolism on β cell function and viability in obesity and type 2 diabetes and highlight LRP1 as an essential regulator of these processes.
Risheng Ye, Ruth Gordillo, Mengle Shao, Toshiharu Onodera, Zhe Chen, Shiuhwei Chen, Xiaoli Lin, Jeffrey A. SoRelle, Xiaohong Li, Miao Tang, Mark P. Keller, Regina Kuliawat, Alan D. Attie, Rana K. Gupta, William L. Holland, Bruce Beutler, Joachim Herz, Philipp E. Scherer
Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are associated with low levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). The insulin-repressible FoxO transcription factors are potential mediators of insulin’s effect on HDL-C. FoxOs mediate a substantial portion of insulin-regulated transcription, and poor FoxO repression is thought to contribute to the excessive glucose production in diabetes. In this work, we show that mice with liver-specific triple FoxO knockout (L-FoxO1,3,4), which are known to have reduced hepatic glucose production, also have increased HDL-C. This was associated with decreased expression of HDL-C clearance factors, scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) and hepatic lipase, and defective selective uptake of HDL-cholesteryl ester by the liver. The phenotype could be rescued by re-expression of SR-BI. These findings demonstrate that hepatic FoxOs are required for cholesterol homeostasis and HDL-mediated reverse cholesterol transport to the liver.
Samuel X. Lee, Markus Heine, Christian Schlein, Rajasekhar Ramakrishnan, Jing Liu, Gabriella Belnavis, Ido Haimi, Alexander W. Fischer, Henry Ginsberg, Joerg Heeren, Franz Rinninger, Rebecca A. Haeusler
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major risk factor for liver cancer; therefore, its prevention is an important clinical goal. Ablation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) or the protein kinase Hippo signaling pathway induces liver cancer via activation of AKT or the transcriptional regulators YAP/TAZ, respectively; however, the potential for crosstalk between the PTEN/AKT and Hippo/YAP/TAZ pathways in liver tumorigenesis has thus far remained unclear. Here, we have shown that deletion of both PTEN and SAV1 in the liver accelerates the development of NAFLD and liver cancer in mice. At the molecular level, activation of YAP/TAZ in the liver of Pten–/– Sav1–/– mice amplified AKT signaling through the upregulation of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) expression. Both ablation of YAP/TAZ and activation of the Hippo pathway could rescue these phenotypes. A high level of YAP/ TAZ expression was associated with a high level of IRS2 expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Moreover, treatment with the AKT inhibitor MK-2206 or knockout of IRS2 by AAV-Cas9 successfully repressed liver tumorigenesis in Pten–/– Sav1–/– mice. Thus, our findings suggest that Hippo signaling interacts with AKT signaling by regulating IRS2 expression to prevent NAFLD and liver cancer progression and provide evidence that impaired crosstalk between these 2 pathways accelerates NAFLD and liver cancer.
Sun-Hye Jeong, Han-Byul Kim, Min-Chul Kim, Ji-min Lee, Jae Ho Lee, Jeong-Hwan Kim, Jin-Woo Kim, Woong-Yang Park, Seon-Young Kim, Jae Bum Kim, Haeryoung Kim, Jin-Man Kim, Hueng-Sik Choi, Dae-Sik Lim
Profound hyperphagia is a major disabling feature of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Characterization of the mechanisms that underlie PWS-associated hyperphagia has been slowed by the paucity of animal models with increased food intake or obesity. Mice with a microdeletion encompassing the Snord116 cluster of noncoding RNAs encoded within the Prader-Willi minimal deletion critical region have previously been reported to show growth retardation and hyperphagia. Here, consistent with previous reports, we observed growth retardation in Snord116+/–P mice with a congenital paternal Snord116 deletion. However, these mice neither displayed increased food intake nor had reduced hypothalamic expression of the proprotein convertase 1 gene PCSK1 or its upstream regulator NHLH2, which have recently been suggested to be key mediators of PWS pathogenesis. Specifically, we disrupted Snord116 expression in the mediobasal hypothalamus in Snord116fl mice via bilateral stereotaxic injections of a Cre-expressing adeno-associated virus (AAV). While the Cre-injected mice had no change in measured energy expenditure, they became hyperphagic between 9 and 10 weeks after injection, with a subset of animals developing marked obesity. In conclusion, we show that selective disruption of Snord116 expression in the mediobasal hypothalamus models the hyperphagia of PWS.
Joseph Polex-Wolf, Brian Y.H. Lam, Rachel Larder, John Tadross, Debra Rimmington, Fàtima Bosch, Verónica Jiménez Cenzano, Eduard Ayuso, Marcella K.L. Ma, Kara Rainbow, Anthony P. Coll, Stephen O’Rahilly, Giles S.H. Yeo
Before insulin can stimulate myocytes to take up glucose, it must first move from the circulation to the interstitial space. The continuous endothelium of skeletal muscle (SkM) capillaries restricts insulin’s access to myocytes. The mechanism by which insulin crosses this continuous endothelium is critical to understand insulin action and insulin resistance; however, methodological obstacles have limited understanding of endothelial insulin transport in vivo. Here, we present an intravital microscopy technique to measure the rate of insulin efflux across the endothelium of SkM capillaries. This method involves development of a fully bioactive, fluorescent insulin probe, a gastrocnemius preparation for intravital microscopy, an automated vascular segmentation algorithm, and the use of mathematical models to estimate endothelial transport parameters. We combined direct visualization of insulin efflux from SkM capillaries with modeling of insulin efflux kinetics to identify fluid-phase transport as the major mode of transendothelial insulin efflux in mice. Model-independent experiments demonstrating that insulin movement is neither saturable nor affected by insulin receptor antagonism supported this result. Our finding that insulin enters the SkM interstitium by fluid-phase transport may have implications in the pathophysiology of SkM insulin resistance as well as in the treatment of diabetes with various insulin analogs.
Ian M. Williams, Francisco A. Valenzuela, Steven D. Kahl, Doraiswami Ramkrishna, Adam R. Mezo, Jamey D. Young, K. Sam Wells, David H. Wasserman
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common complication of obesity. Here, we have shown that activation of the IgG receptor FcγRIIB in endothelium by hyposialylated IgG plays an important role in obesity-induced insulin resistance. Despite becoming obese on a high-fat diet (HFD), mice lacking FcγRIIB globally or selectively in endothelium were protected from insulin resistance as a result of the preservation of insulin delivery to skeletal muscle and resulting maintenance of muscle glucose disposal. IgG transfer in IgG-deficient mice implicated IgG as the pathogenetic ligand for endothelial FcγRIIB in obesity-induced insulin resistance. Moreover, IgG transferred from patients with T2DM but not from metabolically healthy subjects caused insulin resistance in IgG-deficient mice via FcγRIIB, indicating that similar processes may be operative in T2DM in humans. Mechanistically, the activation of FcγRIIB by IgG from obese mice impaired endothelial cell insulin transcytosis in culture and in vivo. These effects were attributed to hyposialylation of the Fc glycan, and IgG from T2DM patients was also hyposialylated. In HFD-fed mice, supplementation with the sialic acid precursor N-acetyl-D-mannosamine restored IgG sialylation and preserved insulin sensitivity without affecting weight gain. Thus, IgG sialylation and endothelial FcγRIIB may represent promising therapeutic targets to sever the link between obesity and T2DM.
Keiji Tanigaki, Anastasia Sacharidou, Jun Peng, Ken L. Chambliss, Ivan S. Yuhanna, Debabrata Ghosh, Mohamed Ahmed, Alexander J. Szalai, Wanpen Vongpatanasin, Robert F. Mattrey, Qiushi Chen, Parastoo Azadi, Ildiko Lingvay, Marina Botto, William L. Holland, Jennifer J. Kohler, Shashank R. Sirsi, Kenneth Hoyt, Philip W. Shaul, Chieko Mineo