One of the leading factors in breast cancer-related death, is tumor recurrence despite apparently successful therapeutic intervention. Recurrent disease is linked to the presence of a minimal population of residual cancer cells that are hard to detect; therefore, little is known about these cells. In this episode, Martin Jechlinger and colleagues present several lines of evidence to show that residual cells have a distinct transcriptional profile that results in changes in metabolism and elevated ROS production. Together, these results provide a better understanding of these cells and suggest potential targeting strategies.
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a prominent component of the liver-resident immune cell population. These cells are involved in both liver regeneration and regulation of the local immune response; however, little is known about how iNKT cells are maintained within the liver. In this episode, Xian Li reveals that stimulation of cell surface receptor OX40 induces a pyroptotic cell death in liver iNKT cells that exacerbates liver injury and inflammation. The results of this study support the OX40 pathway as a potential therapeutic target for limiting liver damage.
Mice with defects in the stem cell factor receptor Kit lack mast cells, which have been implicated in a variety of inflammatory diseases such as arthritis. There are strain-specific differences in how mast cell-deficient animals manifest model diseases, leading to questions about the role of mast cells in certain pathologies. In this episode, Peter Nigrovic and colleagues investigate differences in mast cell-deficient mice that lead to differential susceptibility to IgG-induced arthritis. Using a series of bone marrow and cell transplantation experiments, Nigrovic and coworkers reveal that marrow and stromal context determine the role of mast cells in inflammation and that megakaryocytes can directly mediate inflammation.
During Stuart Orkin’s training as a physician-scientist, he decided to focus on pediatric blood disorders as an area where disease genetics could connect directly to scientific investigations. His work in this field ultimately identified the genetic mutations responsible for thalassemia and chronic granulomatous disease. Recently, his focus has shifted toward singling out hematopoietic targets that can be exploited to treat hematological disorders, including leukemia and sickle cell disease. In this issue of the JCI, Editor at Large Ushma Neill interviews Dr. Orkin to discuss his path toward medicine and scientific research as well as the stories behind these highlights of his research career.
Individuals with mutations in the gene encoding the CD11b are at high risk of developing the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this episode, Mariana Kaplan and Vineet Gupta reveal that SLE-associated mutation in the CD11b-encoding gene that result in reduced CD11b function results in elevated levels of type I IFN. Moreover, in mouse SLE models, treatment with a molecule that activates CD11b reduced type I signaling and reduced end-organ damage. Together, the results of this study support further exploration of CD11b activation as a therapeutic strategy for SLE.